The SAT and the ASEA
The SAT test was invented when James Bryant Conant and a few others decided that smart kids from modest backgrounds should get a chance to attend university. Lately, though, many top universities have gone to a test optional stance on admissions. The purported reason for this is that such exams give an advantage to students with the resources to prepare for and do better on such exams.
A more honest justification would call such policies the Asian Student Exclusion Act, or ASEA for short. Elite schools at every level have seen their test qualified classes filling up with students of Asian ancestry, while the number of whites and especially students of color has shrunk.
Similar reasoning has changed the admissions policies at our highly selective public high schools. These schools have famously been incubators for some of our top scientists, mathematicians, and others. A good question is whether eliminating the highly selective admissions tests will dilute student quality to a point where the atmosphere of intellectual excitement will be lost.
Top universities faced a similar question many decades ago when their test busting student classes filled up with Jewish students. They responded with their eras version of more "holistic" admissions criteria to keep the student body safely WASPy.